|First Aid || Source: Raw Pexel|
First Aid is the immediate help or assistance that you give to someone who has been involved in an accident or who falls ill suddenly, before sending the person to the hospital. Every one of us can give first aid it he/she has learnt about it.
First Aid personnel can save lives if there is no doctor or other health worker available. The person to Whom the first aid is given is called a casualty.
WHY GIVEN FIRST AID
1. To keep the wounded or sick person alive.
2. To prevent the casualty‘s condition from getting worse
3. To promote easy recovery
4. To promote human dignity
SEVEN BASIC POINTS OR PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID
In an emergency situation, the First Aider has to Work according to a plan. He/She must be calm and try to get an overall impression of occurred.
a) What has happened and how it happened.
b) Who are involved and how serious are they hurt.
If you know what has happened, you can give “First Aid” This has to be done in a systematic way.
1. LOOK OUT FOR DANGER
Before one attempts to assist a casualty he must be sure he is free from any risk. Therefore the first aider has to check if there is no risk, as far as the spot of the casualty is concern. For instance, the casualty might have been electrified, therefore any attempt to assist without proper examining the situation may create problem for the first aider.
2. FIND OUT WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE CASUALTY
You may find out from the casualty, that is if he/she is conscious (can talk). However, if the casualty cannot talk, and there are no people around, you may then find out the relationship between the accident and the wounds of a person, for instance, if one falls from a tree, you may expect internal bleeding as well as damage to the head and also the bones. Also, when one is drowned, you can expect difficult in breathing.
3. SEE TO IT THAT THE CASUALTY CONTINUES TO BREATH
Listen, look and feel that the casualty continue to breath, gurgling or Snoring sound can mean, the airway or windpipe of the person is blocked therefore all effort must be made to ensure that the casualty breath. Remember that the. brain cell is Vulnerable and can be destroyed if it does not get enough oxygen between three to four minutes.
4. STOP SERIOUS BLEEDING
Blood serve as the main channel through which oxygen pass through the entire body including the brain, therefore if bleeding does stop could have serious effect on the casualty‘s condition. However no time should be wasted on the internal bleeding.
5. HELP THE CASUALTY ON THE SPOT WHERE HE/ SHE IS LYING
It is better for the casualty to be managed on the spot, however if the place is not save enough then it is advisable for the casualty to be moved, but with due care.
6. REASSURE THE CASUALTY
The First Aider should be courageous enough to enable him encourage the casualty with words that will let the victim fill that he/she is in a safer hands there by help to lessen anxiety.
7. ARRANGE FOR TRANSPORT TO A HEALTH STATION OR A HOSPITAL WITH THE LEAST POSSIBLE DELAY
If it is necessary to transport the casualty to a health centre or hospital, make it as comfortable as possible. Keep the air way open and check the breathing at all times.
WHAT A FIRST AIDER MUST DO
Do first thing first, quickly, quietly and without fuss or panic. Give artificial respiration if breathing has stopped. Stop any bleeding. Do not attempt too much. Do the minimum that is essential to save life and prevent the condition from worsening. Do not allow people to crowd around the casualty as fresh air is essential. Put the casualty on a recovery position after he /she has recovered.
WHAT A FIRST AIDER MUST NOT DO
1 Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious casualty.
2. Do not leave the casualty alone.
3. Do not pronounce anybody dead.
4. Do not rush into action.
5. Do not attempt what you have not been taught.
6. Do not remove clothes unnecessarily.
7. Do not pour water on a casualty.
8. Do not move casualty unnecessarily. `
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