This article was written by Goran Medved in 2016. Pentbooks considers this as great piece of work which shall contribute towards our quest to introduce God as a loving father of believers by law not by ideology. This is a lengthy article, hence grouped into sub pages. You can jump to a sub page through the following links or use the pagination beneath.

  1. Introduction
  2. Exodus Account
  3. Deuteronomy Account
  4. Isaiah
  5. Jeremiah
  6. Hosea
  7. Malachi
  8. New Testament
  9. Conclusion


The article deals with the Old Testament passages in which God is explicitly or metaphorically called the father of Israel (of Israelite people, not Israel (Jacob) as
an individual). In some Old Testament passages, God is directly called the father
of Israel and in others his qualities are compared to human paternal qualities in
relation to Israel.

This article does not deal with texts where God is called the father of Israelite kings (David and Solomon and the anointed one – Messiah) or of a group of individuals (father of the fatherless). In several passages, God speaks to David and promises him offspring, saying “I will be his father and he will be my son” (2 Sam 7:14; 1 Chron 17:13).

Biblical texts interpret this as referring to Solomon (1 Chron 22: 9-10; 1 Chron 28:6), but also to Christ (Heb 1:5). However, those passages are not the subject matter of this article. We can already assume certain characteristics of the fatherhood of God in the first chapters of the Old Testament, in the book of Genesis, in the story of creation. We can see it implied
in the creation of humans after God’s image, in conceiving human families and fatherhood, and in relationships that God establishes with certain individuals.

However, this article deals only with those biblical texts that contain the word “father”, referring to God, and that specifically in relation to Israel.


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